Law is a system of rules that govern the actions of people in a particular country or community. These laws protect the rights of citizens and are enforced by courts.
Rule of Law
In democracies, the rule of law is a system of government that ensures that individuals are governed by the law, regardless of who the government is. It stands in contrast to autocracy, dictatorship or oligarchy, where the people’s power is limited to governing through military force or bureaucratic authority.
The rule of law can be undermined by a lack of judicial accountability or by insufficient legal remedies for people who are subject to unlawful acts. This can be a problem in both democratic and autocratic governments.
The civil law is a body of rules that originated in continental Europe. It is a distinct tradition of legal systems that has spread around the world, particularly to Africa and Asia, where it remains a part of many societies.
In contrast, the common law is a body of law that has developed and evolved over centuries in different countries. Its principles and procedures are rooted in medieval legal jurisprudence.
The commercial law is a branch of the common law that has developed in the 19th and 20th centuries to cover contract, property, and agency. It includes the law of contracts, insurance, bills of exchange and insolvency, and has a long history.
The law also regulates industries, such as energy, water and telecomms. It is a growing area of study, especially as governments have loosened control over the provision of services through privatisation and as climate change poses environmental threats.